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title: 西双版纳地区桑寄生植物多样性和分布特点及其与寄主植物的关系
Other Title: Diversity and distribution of mistletoe, and their interaction with host species in Xishuangbanna, Southwest China
author: 王煊妮
Advisor: 张 玲
Issued Date: 2016-11
Keyword: 桑寄生植物,功能性状,网络关系,土地利用变化,西双版纳
Major: 植物学
Abstract: 本研究调查了西双版纳地区的桑寄生与寄主植物物种多样性和分布,比较不同生境下桑寄生植物分布的特点,构建桑寄生-寄主网络关系图,比较不同生境下网络关系结构和特性的稳定性,并通过对西双版纳地区桑寄生寄主树7个功能性状进行分析,了解影响西双版纳地区桑寄生植物分布的主要寄主功能性状。
主要研究结果如下:
1. 通过对西双版纳地区不同程度干扰的片段化森林、林缘、公路边和种植园4种生境进行桑寄生和寄主植物的调查。共调查记录树木3170棵,桑寄生植物3科,8属,17种,2变种和1亚种,被感染的寄主植物1567棵,分属61科,170属,276种;其中五蕊寄生(Dendrophthoe pentandra)、澜沧江寄生(Scurrula chingiivar. yunnanensis)和鞘花(Macrosolen cochinchinensi)感染的寄主种类最多,分别为235种、86种和46种。西双版纳桑寄生植物多分布在海拔1500米以下的区域;森林中的寄生感染率和寄生强度最低,桑寄生植物倾向于生长在物种多样性较低、食果鸟活动频繁的林缘、公路边、种植园等受一定程度干扰的环境中,高大树木促进桑寄生的聚集生长。
2. 通过对西双版纳地区桑寄生寄主树测得的7个功能性状数据进行典范对应分析(CCA),发现寄主树树高、胸径和小枝木质密度都极显著影响桑寄生植物的分布,而冠幅和树皮性状(粗糙度、含水量、pH)对桑寄生植物分布影响较小。排序结果显示7个寄主功能性状与桑寄生植物分布的相关程度依次为:树高>胸径>木质密度>树皮粗糙度>树皮pH>树皮含水量>冠幅。对CCA模型的解释变量进行向前选择,寄主功能性状进入模型的依次顺序为树高、木质密度、树皮含水量、胸径、树皮粗糙度、冠幅和树皮pH。对模型筛选结果进行全模型置换检验,得到树高、木质密度和树皮含水量的共同作用极显著影响桑寄生植物的分布,而树高、木质密度和胸径的共同作用显著影响桑寄生的分布。
3.通过对西双版纳地区的桑寄生与寄主植物多样性和丰富度展开调查,绘制桑寄生-寄主网络关系图,计算网络特性参数和4种生境桑寄生-寄主关系网络结构和特性的差异。结果显示:不同片段化程度生境下桑寄生-寄主网络关系呈现不对称性、嵌套性和模块化。森林生境中被感染寄生次数最多的是合果木(Michelia baillonii),其次是短刺锥(Castanopsis echidnocarpa)、黄牛木(Cratoxylum cochinchinense)和红锥(Castanopsis hystrix)。寄生次数最多的是五蕊寄生、鞘花和澜沧江寄生。林缘上被感染寄生次数最多的是秧青(Dalbergia assamica),其次是西南木荷(Schima wallichii)、中平树(Macaranga denticulata)和印度血桐(Macaranga indica)。寄生次数最多的是五蕊寄生、澜沧江寄生和鞘花。公路边被感染寄生次数最多的是西南木荷,其次是一未鉴定种类、对叶榕(Ficus hispida)和鸡嗉子榕(Ficus semicordata)。寄生次数最多的是五蕊寄生、澜沧江寄生和卵叶梨果寄生(Scurrula chingii)。种植园被感染寄生次数最多的是柚(Citrus maxima),其次是杧果(Mangifera indica)、蛋黄果(Lucuma nervosa)和海红豆(Adenanthera pavonina)。寄生次数最多的是五蕊寄生,澜沧江寄生和卵叶梨果寄生。
4. 森林、林缘、公路边、种植园4种生境下桑寄生-寄主网络关系物种多样性呈递增趋势。网络中每个物种的平均连接数相近。不同生境中网络连接度随桑寄生和寄主种类的增加呈现减少的趋势。不同生境中的网络均匀度(interaction evenness)和专性程度(H2’)与零模型对比都存在极显著差异。并且所有生境中都呈现连接强度不对称性(interaction strength asymmetry),仅有少数物种拥有很强的连接。森林、公路边和种植园中,桑寄生-寄主网络关系相对于随机模型呈现极显著的嵌套性。四种生境下模块化程度都较低。对森林、林缘、公路边、种植园4种生境桑寄生-寄主关系网络中物种进行角色判定。结果表明,森林、林缘、公路边3种生境桑寄生-寄主网络关系中,所有种类的桑寄生植物均是网络中的专性种。种植园网络中,五蕊寄生是泛化种。对于寄主植物而言,林缘上鸡嗉子榕、中平树、黄牛木、对叶榕和印度血桐是网络中的泛化种;公路边是鸡嗉子榕、白楸(Mallotus paniculatus)和披针叶楠(Phoebe lanceolata);种植园里黄樟(Cinnamomum parthenoxylon)、假柿木姜子(Litsea monopetala)和槟榔青(Spondias pinnata)是网络中的泛化种。
English Abstract: To compare mistletoe diversity, distribution,and their associations with host trees and host-mistletoe network properties indifferent habitats, we investigated mistletoes and their hosts diversity and distribution using transect survey and roadside survey infour habitats in Xishuangbanna, southwest China. And the main functional traits of hostswhich affect mistletoe distributionswere analyzed by canonical correlation analysis. The main results are as follows:
1. A total of 17 mistletoe species, two varied species,one subspecies were identified belonging to eight genera and three families in this study. These were 276 host tree species were found belonging to 170 genera and 61 families. The most generalist mistletoe species were Dendrophthoe pentandra(infecting 235 host species), Scurrula chingiivar. yunnanensis(infecting 86 host species) and Macrosolen cochinchinensis(infecting 46 host species). Mistletoes preferred to distribute in areas that altitude below 1500m. Mistletoe infection prevalence and intensity in forests were significantly lower than other disturbed habitats (P < 0.01), indicated that mistletoes prefer to distribute in disturbed areas where there have lower host species diversity and frequently frugivorous bird activities. And mistletoestend to aggregating in tall trees.
2. The results of CCA indicated that tree height, DBH andwood density of hosts were thefunctional traits significantly affected mistletoe distribution in Xishuangbanna, while crown diameter and bark traits (roughness, water content and pH) had no significant effect on mistletoe distribution. The correlation degree between host functional traits and mistletoe distribution were shown asfollow: tree height> DBH> wood density> bark roughness> bark pH> bark water content> crown diameter. Using forward selection to choose the best model, the result showed that combined effect of tree height, wood density and bark water content had extremely
significant impact on mistletoe distribution. The combined effect of tree height, wood density and DBH significantly affected mistletoe distribution.
3. The mistletoe -host network showed asymmetry, nestedness and modularity in both four habitats. In forest, the most susceptible host species was Michelia baillonii, thenCastanopsis echidnocarpa, Cratoxylum cochinchinenseand Castanopsis hystrix. The most abundant mistletoe was theD. pentandra, followed by M. cochinchinensiand S. chingiivar. yunnanensis. On forest edge, the most susceptible host species was Dalbergia assamica, followed by Schima wallichii, Macaranga denticulataand Macaranga indica. The most abundant mistletoe was D.pentandra, S.chingiivar. yunnanensisand M.cochinchinensi. On roadside, the most susceptible host species was S. wallichii, followed by an unidentified species, Ficus hispidaand Ficus semicordata. The most abundant mistletoe was the D.pentandra, S.chingiivar. yunnanensisand S. chingi. In plantation, the most susceptible host species was Citrus maxima, then Mangifera indica, Lucuma nervosaand Adenanthera pavonina. The most abundant mistletoe was D.pentandra, S.chingiivar. yunnanensisand S.chingii.
4. The species diversity in forest, forest edge, roadside and plantation host-mistletoe network was increasing. Number of link per species in 4 networkswere similar. Connectance showed a decreasing trend with the increasing species diversity. Theinteraction evenness and H2’ had significant difference with null model in four habitats. All habitats showed interaction strength asymmetry, rare species had strong connection. In forest, roadside and plantation, host-mistletoe network showed a significant nestedness compared with null model. Network modularity in four habitats were low. The network roles of mistletoe and host species in four habitats were determined. The results showed that in forest, forest edge and roadside habitat, all mistletoe species were specialists. In plantation, D.pentandrawas the generalist. For host plants, F. semicordata, M. denticulat, Cratoxylum cochinchinense, F. hispidaand M. indicaon forest edge; F. semicordata, Mallotus paniculatusand Phoebe lanceolataon roadside;Cinnamomum parthenoxylon, Litsea monopetalaand Spondias pinnatain plantation were generalists in host-mistletoe network.
Degree Level: 硕士
Place of Degree's Grantor: 北京
Grantor: 中国科学院研究生院
Content Type: 学位论文
URI: http://ir.xtbg.org.cn/handle/353005/10288
Appears in Collections:西双版纳热带植物园毕业生学位论文_学位论文

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Recommended Citation:
王煊妮. 西双版纳地区桑寄生植物多样性和分布特点及其与寄主植物的关系[D]. 北京. 中国科学院研究生院. 2016.
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