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昌化江流域上游人工林种植对天然林保护影响的研究
Alternative TitleImpact of plantations on the tropical forest conservation in Upper reaches of Changhua watershed, Hainan
翟德利
Subtype博士
Thesis AdvisorCharles H. Cannon Jr
2012-05
Degree Grantor中国科学院研究生院
Place of Conferral北京
Degree Discipline生态学
Keyword土地利用/覆被变化 森林转型 森林砍伐 橡胶林 浆纸林 退耕还林
Abstract自上个世纪80年代以来,中国森林面积开始出现了逆转性的增长,而目前中国正在经历森林面积从负增长到正增长的森林快速转型期,经费、人力、物力在人工林种植上的大幅投入及政策倾斜是中国发生森林转型的重要原因。而对人工林的种植大力扶持的原因是:人工林的种植有利于减轻对天然林的压力,从而有利于天然林的保护,且认为人工林种植带来的森林面积增长会同时带来森林生态系统服务功能的改善。因而,通过种植人工林来增加森林生态服务功能和保护天然林的措施受到了研究者和政策制定者的广泛关注。但是,在中国热带地区的研究却发现人工林的种植威胁着天然林的保护,威胁着当地的生物多样性。因此,研究森林转型中人工林对天然林保护的作用和对生态系统恢复的影响不仅具有重要的理论价值,而且对指导进行合理的森林经营管理具有重要的实践意义。 海南岛是中国最大的热带岛屿,是我国生物多样性热点区域,保存有大面积的热带森林,特有种丰富,尤其是其中部山区的昌化江流域上游和五指山市,对海南生态环境和特有种保护具有重要意义。目前,海南省正在经历森林转型之后的森林增长期,本研究选取对海南生态环境和特有物种保护分布保护具有重要意义的昌化江流域上游和五指山市作为研究点,应用地理信息系统和遥感技术提取土地利用/覆被变化数据,统计分析流域内土地利用/覆被变化,探究土地利用变化的驱动因素;结合景观生态学方法探讨该地区人工林种植对区域土地利用变化的生态影响;并结合社会学的方法研究该地区人工林种植对天然林保护的社会影响。 本研究所取得的主要研究结果和结论如下: 1)研究区内人工林尤其是橡胶林和浆纸林并没有对天然林起到保护作用,相反橡胶林和浆纸林等以取代天然林的方式大面积扩张,破坏了研究区的天然林。特别是自1995年之后浆纸林迅速增加,至2005年浆纸林种植面积已为1995年面积的3000多倍,达到了152平方千米,而天然植被则大面积减少; 2)橡胶林和浆纸林的种植是通过取代不同海拔和坡度的天然林进行面积扩张的,造成了对天然林的威胁;浆纸林取代中高海拔和陡坡地段的天然林,而橡胶林则取代低海拔和缓坡度的天然林; 3)驱动力研究发现当地纸浆厂巨大的生产能力和原材料供给缺口是浆纸林扩张主要原因,且已成为海南天然林的主要威胁; 4)浆纸林和橡胶林等人工林使用森林和生态林的定义,生产和管理上的概念混用使其在海南获得了取代天然林的合法通行证,是海南天然林面积大量减少的原因之一; 5)作为生态恢复和生态补偿于一体的退耕还林工程在施行中多采用单一物种的人工林种植模式,且研究区约70%的土地由企业和大户承包经营者承包经营。仅占退耕还林总面积30%的农户的经营行为并不能保证退耕还林成果的巩固。由于退耕还林补偿超过三分之二被企业和大户私人承包经营者所得,并未补偿到生活在当地的农民,因而退耕还林补偿的发放在一定程度上加剧了该地区的贫富分化; 6)退耕还林工程中采用橡胶林和浆纸林等单一物种的种植模式以提高的森林生态系统的服务功能,辅之以政府的财政补助等激励措施使人工林大面积扩张的做法,并不适合热带区域;人工林通过取代天然林扩张的做法不仅不利于森林生态服务功能的维持和发挥,而且已对当地的生物多样性造成了威胁。退耕还林工程在研究区的实施,一定程度上加剧了该地区天然林的丧失和人工林种植面积的扩张,因而具有不可持续性。 最后本研究建议在将来的林业管理中应明确以获得经济利益为主要目的的橡胶林和浆纸林与具有较高生态服务功能的森林之间的界限,并对天然林、人工种植的经济用林制定不同的林业政策;对退耕还林地开展生态服务功能评估,建立合理有效的退耕还林补偿机制。
Other AbstractChina’s forests have been increased its areas since 1980s, and China’s forests has been undergoing great forest transition from net deforestation to net reforestation since 2000. This forest transition has increased China’s forest area and improved the forest ecosystem services. While great investment on plantations was the main reason for the forest transition in China. Moreover, plantations were proved to benefit the natural forest conservation by releasing the pressure on natural forests. So scientists and policy-makers were interested in plantations’ role on forest conservation and improving forest ecosystem services. The research of the impact of plantation development on natural forest conservation and on the ecological restoration has great significance in scientific studies and forest management practices. Hainan, the largest tropical island in China, belongs to the Indo-Burma biodiversity hotspot and harbors large areas of tropical forests, particularly in the uplands. Hainan has been undergoing its forest transition that is increasing Hainan’s current forest areas. The Changhua watershed is the cradle of Hainan’s main rivers and a center of endemism for plants and birds. The watershed also contains great habitat diversity and is an important conservation area. This research selected the Upper reaches of Changhua watershed and Wuzhishan County as thse study sites, and extracting land use/land cover changes data by remote sensing and geological information system, then analyzing the land use/land cover changes pattern in the watershed, then followed by the landscape analysis to study the ecological impacts of the land use/land cover pattern, linking the social studies to this research to study the social impacts of plantations on natural forest conservation. The main conclusions from this research are summarized as follows: 1) The development of plantations in Hainan didn’t protect natural forests, but destroyed local natural forests. The expansion of the plantations was developed by displacing natural forests, especially the expansion of both rubber and pulp plantations. Pulp plantations expanded sharply since 1995, increased more than 3000 times of that in 1995 which was 152 sq km by 2005.; 2) The expansion of rubber and pulp plantations represents a double threat to natural forests, as they displaced forests in different slopes and elevations, with pulp plantation replacing natural forests on middle and high elevation as well as natural forests on steeply slopes .; 3) The overcapacity of the pulp mill and the undergoing shortfall of raw material put considerable pressure on remaining upland forests; 4) The forest and ecological forest definition of both rubber and pulp plantations during forest production and management made them legally replace natural forests, which is one of the reasons that led to the decrease of natural forests; 5) Few species were adopted and mono-culture plantation were the main type during SLCP, a ecological restoration and payments for ecosystem services program in China, and about 70% of the involved lands were contacted by companies and large-scale private investors, and the 30% households’ active management activities cannot provide the sustain of this program. Additionally, more than two thirds of the sloping land conversion program payments were obtained by companies and large-scale investors, but not the people who live there. The consequences of this program might increase the income stratification; 6) The sloping land conversion program adopted few species with mono-culture plantation to improve the forest ecosystem services, aided by the government financial stimulation, which is unsuitable for tropical regions; the replacing of natural forests with plantations will not benefit local forest ecosystem services, and it has threatened local biodiversity. The implementation of the sloping land conversion program in the study area increased the deforestation and the area expansion of plantations, so it is not sustainable. Finally, it is recommend for future forest management that rubber and pulp plantations be reclassified as industrial forests or industrial economic forests and tropical crops be classified as plantations to make a clear distinction in forest policy between natural forests, plantations and industrial forestry; more emphasis should be paid on the assessments of the ecosystem services provided by the trees planted by sloping land conversion program, not planting trees in the future ecological restoration or payments for ecosystem services programs in China's tropical areas; and more effective payments should be made for the sloping land conversion program.
Language中文
Document Type学位论文
Identifierhttp://ir.xtbg.org.cn/handle/353005/10329
Collection西双版纳热带植物园毕业生学位论文
Recommended Citation
GB/T 7714
翟德利. 昌化江流域上游人工林种植对天然林保护影响的研究[D]. 北京. 中国科学院研究生院,2012.
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