XTBG OpenIR  > 西双版纳热带植物园毕业生学位论文
西双版纳纳版河流域热带森林片段化对林下节肢动物多样性的影响
Alternative TitleThe effect of tropical forest fragmentation on understory arthropod diversity in Xishuangbanna Naban watershed
马占霞
Subtype硕士
Thesis Advisor张玲
2017-11
Degree Grantor中国科学院研究生院
Place of Conferral北京
Degree Discipline生态学
Keyword节肢动物 物种多样性 橡胶林 森林片段化 Metabarcoding技术
Abstract
近几十年来,地处热带北缘的西双版纳地区土地利用方式发生了巨大变化,大面积的热带森林不仅被单一种植的橡胶林所替代,残存的自然林也被隔离为面积不等的森林片段,生物多样性受到严重威胁和影响。作为森林生态系统重要组成成分的节肢动物,在生态系统结构和功能中扮演着重要角色,研究森林片段化对节肢动物群落的影响具有重要的科学意义。本研究以西双版纳纳版河流域不同景观梯度下的片段森林和橡胶林为研究样地,采用马氏网诱集法和地杯法共收集林下节肢动物个体25,205个,其中片段森林中共收集到14,227个个体,橡胶林中共收集到10,978个个体。以传统的形态学鉴定和metabarcoding为技术手段,研究片段森林和橡胶林中林下节肢动物多样性和群落组成,分析了节肢动物群落分布格局的驱动因素。主要结果如下:
1. 基于传统形态分类鉴定,所获节肢动物隶属于27个类群,优势类群为弹尾目、鳞翅目、蜱螨目和双翅目,所占比例为70.22%。;其中马氏网诱集法共收集到林下节肢动物为18个类群,优势类群为双翅目、膜翅目、鳞翅目和弹尾目;地杯法共收集到地表节肢动物为27个类群,优势类群为蜱螨目、弹尾目、啮目和膜翅目,表明两种取样方法的有效结合能更全面的调查森林节肢动物群落。
2. 季节和森林植被类型对节肢动物多度、物种多样性指数均呈现显著的独立影响;片段森林和橡胶林中,旱季节肢动物总体多度显著高于雨季。节肢动物多度不受片段森林面积的影响;片段森林中影响节肢动物群落组成的因素包括片段森林面积、海拔和坡度,并有显著的季节差异;橡胶林中的影响因素为海拔和坡向,无显著季节差异。
3. 基于metabarcoding技术,从橡胶林和片段森林林下马氏网中共得到397个OTUS,隶属于18个类群,其中片段森林中共收集到节肢动物18目,347个OTUS;橡胶林收集到节肢动物为14目,136个OTUS。(1)片段森林中节肢动物物种多样性显著高于橡胶林;非度量多维尺度分析(NMDS分析)结果显示,橡胶林和片段森林中节肢动物群落组成具有显著差异,片段森林的节肢动物群落beta多样性大于橡胶林。(2)节肢动物物种丰富度在大片段森林显著高于森林小片段;NMDS分析结果显示,大、小片段森林之间节肢动物群落组成有显著差异,大片段森林之间的beta多样性小于小片段森林的。(3)在景观尺度上,影响节肢动物物种多样性的主要因素为森林覆盖率,影响节肢动物群落分布的主要因素为森林覆盖率和坡度;在样方尺度上,影响橡胶林节肢动物物种多样性的主要因素为胶树年龄、海拔和到森林边缘的距离,影响节肢动物群落分布的主要因素为胶树年龄、海拔、坡度和到森林的距离;影响森林节肢动物物种多样性的主要因素为森林面积、海拔、坡向、树种多样性和到森林边缘距离,影响其群落分布的主要因素为森林面积、海拔、坡度、坡向和到森林边缘距离。
4. 基于形态学鉴定的林下节肢动物(马氏网收集)群落结果显示,片段森林和橡胶林无显著差异,且节肢动物多度和片段森林面积之间无相关性;metabarcoding分析结果显示,片段森林林下节肢动物物种丰富度显著高于橡胶林,且随着片段森林面积的加大而增加。由此表明metabarcoding可以提供更多的信息,能有效的评估尺度节肢动物群落组成和物种多样性。
综上所述,橡胶种植导致的森林片段化、生境隔离、植被类型改变、森林覆盖率降低等对节肢动物多样性和组成有显著的负面影响,片段森林的节肢动物物种多样性和群落beta多样性显著较高,表明在以橡胶林为背景的土地利用景观格局中,保留一定数量的森林片段与橡胶林形成异质性高的镶嵌格局将有利于节肢动物多样性的保护。研究结果为进一步了解森林—橡胶林镶嵌格局对节肢动物群落多样性和组成的影响,以及对残存小森林片段的保护提供了相关的科学数据,同时也为森林保护以及林业管理提出了建议,即不仅要保护森林完整性,同时对小片段森林也需要加以保护。
关键词:节肢动物,物种多样性,橡胶林,森林片段化,metabarcoding技术

Other AbstractXishuangbanna is located in the tropical northern, where biodiversity is rich. However in recent decades, the land use of Xishuangbanna undergone tremendous changes. Large-scale primary tropical forests were gradually replaced by single-planted rubber plantation, and the remaining natural forest was isolated to many different area forest fragments, which have brought a serious threat to local biodiversity. Arthropods are one of the important components for forest ecosystems and play an important role in the structure and function of ecosystems. Therefore, it is significant to insight into the influence of forest fragmentation to arthropod community. This study was set up in Nabanhe national nature reserve of Xishuangbanna, we compared understory arthropod diversity and community composition between rubber plantations and forest fragments using traditional morphological and metabarcoding technical. We also analyze the relationship between arthropods and environmental factors, and try to understand the key factors which influenced arthropod community structure. The main research results are as follows:
1. Based on the traditional morphological analysis, 25,205 arthropos were collected by malaise trap and ground cup method in forest fragments and rubber plantations, which belong to 27 orders. The dominant taxa groups were Collembola, Lepidoptera, Acarina and Diptera, which account for 70.22%. A total of 14,227 arthropos were indentified in forest fragments, 10,978 arthropods were collected from rubber plantations. 18 groups were collected by Malaise trap, and the dominant groups were Diptera, Lepidoptera, Collembola and Psocoptera; 27 groups were collected by groung cup, and the dominant groups were Collembola, Lepidoptera, Acarina and Diptera. In order to investigate arthropods more comprehensive, two sampling methods should be combined effectively. The ANOVA analysis showed that season and forest type had significant effects on arthropods abundance and species diversity index; Arthropods abundance was higher in dry seasons compared to rainy season. The abundance of arthropods was not effect by forest fragments area. In forest fragments, the main factors affecting the composition of arthropod community were forest fragments area, altitude and slope; the influence factors in rubber forest are altitude and slope.
2. Based on the metabarcoding technique, a total of 397 OTUSs were obtained from rubber plantations and forest fragments, which belong to 18 orders. In forest fragments, a total of 347 OTUSs were collected, and 136 OTUSs were collected from rubber plantations. (1) Compared with primary forests, rubber plantations had significant negative effect on arthropod richness; The results of nonmetric multidimensional scaling analysis (NMDS analysis) showed that the composition of arthropod community in rubber plantations and forest fragments was significantly different; Beta diversity of forest fragments is larger than that of rubber plantations; (2) Arthropod richness in large forest fragments was significantly larger than small forest fragments. NMDS analysis showed that the composition of arthropod community in large area forest fragments is significantly different from that of small forest fragments; Beta diversity between large forest fragments is smaller than small forest fragments; (3) In the landscape scale, the main factors affecting the species diversity of arthropods were nature forest cover, and the main factors affecting the composition of arthropod community were nature forest cover and slope; In local scale, the main factors influencing the diversity of arthropods in rubber were the age of rubber tree, altitude and distance to forest, and the main factors affecting the composition of arthropod community were the age of rubber tree, altitude, distance to forest and slope; In forest, the main factors influencing the diversity of arthropods were forest area, altitude, aspect, tree diversity and distance to the edge of forest, and the main factors affecting the composition of arthropod community were forest fragments area, altitude, distance to the edge of forest, slope and aspect.
3. The results of diversity and composition of arthropods in forest fragments and rubber plantations were different between morphological approach and DNA barcoding: there was no significant difference in arthropods abundance between fragment forest and rubber plantations collected by Malaise, however the richness of arthropod in the fragment forest was significantly higher than that of rubber plantations; Although the NMDS analysis of the two methods were similar, but the environmental factors which effected arthropods community were different. Metabarcoding technique can effectively evaluate the community composition and species diversity of arthropods in this study.
In conclusion, this study demonstrated that rubber planting has a significant negative impact on arthropod diversity as well as forest fragments. Large areas of forests can maintain higher biological diversity than rubber plantation. The present results provide basic data and management basis for the conservation of biodiversity in Xishuangbanna area, while demonstrating that the small forest surrounded by rubber plantations still has its value and needs to be protected.
Key Words: arthropod, biodiversity, rubber plantation, forest fragment, metabarcoding
Language中文
Document Type学位论文
Identifierhttp://ir.xtbg.org.cn/handle/353005/10696
Collection西双版纳热带植物园毕业生学位论文
Recommended Citation
GB/T 7714
马占霞. 西双版纳纳版河流域热带森林片段化对林下节肢动物多样性的影响[D]. 北京. 中国科学院研究生院,2017.
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