XTBG OpenIR  > 西双版纳热带植物园毕业生学位论文
Invasions by Alien Plants in Protected Areas of Java, Indonesia
Michael Padmanaba
Thesis AdvisorRichard T. Corlett ; Alice C. Hughes
Degree Grantor中国科学院研究生院
Place of Conferral北京
Degree Discipline植物学
Keyword外来植物入侵、国家公园、分布、控制、 爪哇
AbstractInvasive alien plants are an increasing global problem, with ecological, economic, and social impacts. Increasing global concern has been accompanied by increased mitigation efforts in many countries, but this has been outweighed by the effects of increasing global connectivity through trade and travel. As a result, this is a problem which is certain to get worse. A review of the literature on invasive aliens in production forests, which are more extensive than protected areas, identified minimizing canopy opening, minimizing the width of access roads, and continued surveillance for invasive species as management principles that should apply in both production and protected forests. Alien trees used in plantations may themselves become invasive so the species for planting should be chosen with care.
Alien plants are invading protected areas worldwide, but there is currently little information from tropical Asia. The island of Java in Indonesia has the longest record of human occupation in Asia, and has undergone dramatic vegetation change and landscape modification. Today, Java supports 145 million people in 128,000 km2, making it the most populous island in the world. The island also has 12 small, but well-protected, National Parks, which support most of the remaining native biodiversity. These are surrounded by dense human populations, making them highly vulnerable to invasions. We surveyed eight of these parks—Ujung Kulon, Gunung Gede Pangrango, Gunung Merapi, Gunung Merbabu, Bromo Tengger Semeru, Meru Betiri, Alas Purwo, and Baluran—along a rainfall gradient from lowland rainforest with >3000 mm annual rainfall to savanna with <1500 mm, and a 0-3158 m altitudinal gradient, using 403 10 x 5 m plots next to trails. We also established 70 transects, 2 m wide and up to 50 m long, perpendicular to the trails in Ujung Kulon, Gunung Gede Pangrango, Bromo Tengger Semeru, Alas Purwo, and Baluran. Forty-four data loggers were set up to record temperature and humidity at representative sites and 35 soil samples were collected for chemical analysis.
Principal components analysis was used to describe patterns of species composition across the parks, and generalized linear mixed models were used to identify the environmental factors affecting the patterns of abundance of invasive plants within each park. We interviewed park officers to identify current management actions addressing invasions by alien plants. Interviews with visitors and local communities were conducted to obtain people’s perceptions, knowledge, and awareness of invasive alien plants. We used MaxEnt to model current distributions of invasive alien species in Java, potential future distributions following the climate changes projected by the HadGEM2-ES earth system model under three different emission scenarios, and potential distributions in Java based on the climate in their native ranges. In addition, factors most influential to the spread of the invasive alien plants were determined.
We recorded 67 invasive alien plant species, of which Lantana camara and Chromolaena odorata were present in all parks and Clidemia hirta was present in all but the two driest parks. Elephantopus scaber, Hyptis capitata, and Passiflora foetida were in all lowland parks but none of the mountain parks, while Ageratina riparia and Austroeupatorium inulaefolium were in all mountain parks but none of the lowland parks. Thirty-three species occurred in only one park, including Acacia nilotica, which now covers more than 60 km2 of the Baluran National Park, 40 years after it was first planted there. Historical factors relating to plant introduction appeared to be as important as environmental factors in determining which species occurred in which park, while, within parks, canopy cover and altitude were generally most influential, with fewer species under closed canopies and at high altitude. Spread away from trails was only evident in open habitats, including natural savannas in Baluran National Park.
For all scenarios and time periods, HadGEM2-ES predicts warmer temperatures and lower rainfall in the future in Java, with the amount of warming depending strongly on the scenario, while the amount of drying depends more on the spatial location. Our species distribution models show that each alien plant species is likely to respond differently to future climates. Some species (e.g. Crassocephalum crepidioides, Mimosa pudica, Passiflora foetida, and Solanum americanum) spread more in low emission scenarios, while others expanded more under high emissions (Bidens pilosa, Chromolaena odorata and Lantana camara). Some invasive plants currently restricted to the lowlands, such as Hyptis capitata and Sida rhombifolia, are predicted to move to higher altitudes under climate change.
Existing control attempts for invasive aliens in Javan parks are reactive, localized, and intermittent. Among the surveyed national parks, only in Gunung Gede Pangrango and Baluran had management actions been implemented, including largely unsuccessful attempts at mechanical and chemical eradication of problematic invasive plants. Both visitors and local communities lacked knowledge and awareness of invasive plants. We recommend that park authorities and their staff conduct annual monitoring for early detection of invasion and that they blacklist all species that are known to be invasive from planting near National Parks. We also recommend that experimental comparisons are made among the control methods currently used in order to assess their cost and effectiveness, and that biological control is considered for alien species for which there has been successful control elsewhere. Lessons from Java are likely to be applicable to biological invasions into protected areas throughout the Asian tropics, now or in the near future, as human populations and economic development increase.
Key words: invasive alien plants, national park, distribution, control, Java
Other Abstract外来植物入侵已是日益严重的全球问题, 其影响包括生态、经济和社会多个方面。随着全球范围对这一问题越来越多的关注,许多国家都开展了入侵植物的防治工作,但这依然无法抵抵消由于全球贸易和旅行带来的影响;入侵问题将会变得更为严重。通过一系列的文献研究,作者发现经济林比保护区更容易受到入侵,减少林冠层开放程度、林中道路宽度最小化以及入侵物种的持续监测,可以应用于经济林和保护区森林的管理。人工林中使用的外来树种本身也具入侵性,应当小心选择不同的外来树种。
外来植物侵入保护区的情况在全球均有发生,但目前关于植物入侵热带亚洲的信息和数据却很少。印度尼西亚爪哇岛是亚洲地区人类活动历史最悠久的地区,亦经历了戏剧性的植被变化和景观改造。目前,128000 km2的爪哇岛居住了1.45亿人,成为世界人口最多的岛屿。该岛拥有12个虽然小、却受到保护的小型国家公园。这些国家公园保存了大部分的原生生物多样性。同时,这些国家公园亦被密集的人口所包围,使得它们非常容易受到入侵。该研究选择调查了其中8个国家公园, 分别是Ujung Kulon、Gunung Gede Pangrango、Gunung Merapi、Gunung Merbabu、Bromo Tengger Semeru、Meru Betiri、Alas Purwo和Baluran。我们的实验沿着不同降水梯度(从年降雨量>3000mm的低地雨林到年降雨量<1500的大草原)和不同海拔梯度(0-3158m)展开,在道路旁边设置了403个10×5米的样地。我们还设置了70个宽2米,长约50米垂直置于Ujung Kulon、Gunung Gede Pangrango、Bromo Tengger Semeru、Alas Purwo和Baluran小径的横断面。同时,我们安装了四十四个数据记录仪以记录各个代表性站点的温度和湿度;我们亦收集了35份用于化学分析的土壤样品。
我们在研究中记录了67个外来入侵植物物种,其中Lantana camaraChromolaena odorata入侵了所有的国家公园。Clidemia hirta入侵了除最干燥的两个国家公园之外的所有公园。在所有的低地区域里都有Elephantopus scaberHyptis capitataPassiflora foetida,而Ageratina ripariaAustroeupatorium inulaefolium则出现在所有的山区区域。有33种仅入侵植物仅出现在一个国家公园,包括Baluran国家公园中的Acacia nilotica在40年前第一次引种,至今已覆盖了该国家公园内60余平方公里的土地。植物引种的历史因素与植物所在地区的环境因素二个重要因子决定了不同的入侵植物入侵不同的国家公园。同一国家公园内,林冠覆盖度和海拔通常是最为重要的影响因子,物种种类在封闭的林冠和高海拔地区相对较少,远离小径的入侵物种只出现于露天栖息地,这包括Baluran国家公园内的大草原。
基于所有场景和时间段,HadGEM2-ES预测,爪哇岛未来气温将升高,而降雨将减少,气候升温多少取决于情景模型,而变干程度则取决于空间位置。我们的物种分布模型显示每个外来植物物种可能对未来的气候有不同的反应。一些物种(例如Crassocephalum crepidioides, Mimosa pudica, Passiflora foetida,Solanum americanum)在低排放情景下传播得更多,而其他物种(Bidens pilosaChromolaena odorataLantana camara)在高排放情况下更利于扩散。目前一些仅限于低地地区的入侵植物,如:Hyptis capitataSida rhombifolia,预计将在气候变化情况下迁移至高海拔地区。
爪哇岛各个国家公园现在对外来入侵物种的控制尝试是反应性的、局部的和间歇性的。在调查的国家公园中,只有Gunung Gede Pangrango和Baluran国家公园实施了根除入侵植物的管理措施,其中包括实行机械和化学的方法进行大规模的清除,但并不成功。调查显示,游客和当地社区对侵入植物也缺乏知识和警觉意识。我们建议国家公园相关部门和人员对入侵植物发现进行年度监控,以尽早发现,并阻止列入黑名单的物种在国家公园附近种植。我们还建议在目前使用的控制方法之间进行实验比较,以评估其成本和有效性,一些在别的地区成功应用的生物控制方法,也可以借鉴和尝试。随着人口增长和经济发展,用于爪哇岛入侵植物的防范经验可适当用于亚洲热带保护区,以抵挡生物入侵。
关键词: 外来植物入侵、国家公园、分布、控制、 爪哇
Document Type学位论文
Recommended Citation
GB/T 7714
Michael Padmanaba. Invasions by Alien Plants in Protected Areas of Java, Indonesia[D]. 北京. 中国科学院研究生院,2017.
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