XTBG OpenIR  > 西双版纳热带植物园毕业生学位论文
西双版纳热带雨林和人工橡胶林林冠雨滴溅蚀研究
Alternative TitleStudies on rain splash erosion under a tropical rainforest canopy and a rubber plantation canopy in Xishuangbanna, SW China
罗亲普
Subtype硕士
Thesis Advisor刘文杰
2012-05
Degree Grantor中国科学院研究生院
Place of Conferral北京
Degree Discipline生态学
Keyword土壤侵蚀 土壤溅蚀 穿透水侵蚀力 人工橡胶林 热带雨林
Other Abstract自从上世纪70年代以来,由于经济发展的需要,西双版纳地区显著的土地利用/覆盖变化就是大面积的热带雨林向人工橡胶林的转变。该植被变化在今后长时期内将极有可能导致严重的生态与环境效应,尤其是区域性土壤侵蚀及土地退化。本文主要采用Ellison和Morgan型土壤溅蚀杯的方法,测定并对比了西双版纳地区热带雨林和30年林龄单层人工橡胶林、40年林龄不同结构橡胶林间、40年林龄橡胶林不同枯落物覆盖厚度之间的土壤溅蚀,探讨了热带森林群落的土壤溅蚀特征和过程及机制,揭示了热带雨林转变为橡胶林及其不同方式后的土壤溅蚀演变规律。此外,文中还揭示了热带雨林和30年林龄单层橡胶林的土壤溅蚀率与降雨强度的关系。取得有意义的结果如下: 1. 研究表明,人工橡胶林观测点(RP)的平均潜在土壤溅蚀率(PSER)是林外观测点的2.12倍,反映了橡胶林的林冠不能降低雨滴侵蚀,这同时也表明雨滴溅蚀是橡胶林林地表层土壤的一种重要侵蚀机制。另外,热带雨林观测点(TRF)的平均PSER只是林外观测点的1.22倍,说明了热带雨林林冠同样不能起到保护地表避免受雨滴侵蚀的作用。因此,在没有考虑枯落物层和草本层的条件下,据该结果可以得出结论,人工橡胶林取代热带雨林的植被变化对减少降水对林地的冲击是负面的。此外,分析结果显示橡胶林和热带雨林观测点土壤溅蚀率的标准差均明显大于林外空旷地的,反映出这2种林型的林冠穿透雨侵蚀力的异质性较大,而林外大气降雨的则较小。 测定结果表明橡胶林观测点的平均原位土壤溅蚀率(ISER)为热带雨林观测点的1.97倍,表明相比于橡胶林,热带雨林更能保护林地表层土壤避免受穿透水的侵蚀。因此,在没有考虑地被的情况下,据该结果同样可以进一步说明橡胶林取代热带雨林的植被变化在保护地表避免雨滴溅蚀方面具有负面的效应。另外,测定结果显示橡胶林观测点台坡ISER是台阶的1.43倍,反映出台阶和台坡在控制土壤溅蚀方面有一定的差异,台坡较易受到穿透水的侵蚀。该结果有助于理解橡胶林内不同地形(台阶和台坡)的土壤溅蚀特征,同时也进一步强调橡胶林实施水土保持工程的重要性,特别是台阶。 线性回归分析结果表明对于每个林内观测点,PSER与短时间尺度最大降雨强度的相关性要好于与长时间尺度最大降雨强度的相关性;PSER与1 小时最大穿透降雨强度之间的相关性最强,而与总穿透降雨量之间的相关性最弱。不同的是,对于每个林外观测点,PSER与短时间尺度最大降雨强度的相关性相对较弱,但与总降雨量的相关性最强。 研究中探讨了林内观测点的潜在和原位土壤溅蚀率的差别。结果发现原位和潜在土壤溅蚀率比值在橡胶林观测点的台坡、台阶和热带雨林观测点的条件下分别为0.47、0.52和0.30,这说明对于橡胶林(台阶和台坡)和热带雨林,潜在土壤溅蚀率均明显高于原位土壤溅蚀率。因此,保护森林生态系统表层土壤的结构十分必要,以避免降水对表层土壤的侵蚀。 2. 测定结果表明单层橡胶林(SRP)、多层橡胶林(MRP)和两层橡胶林(TRP)的土壤溅蚀率分别为林外空旷地的1.55、1.30和1.05倍,表明3种不同橡胶林林冠的穿透水侵蚀力均大于林外空旷地,尤其是单层橡胶林。分析认为,林下土壤溅蚀率和穿透水侵蚀力与林冠结构有着极其密切的关系,尤其是冠层高度、覆盖度。高度较低、覆盖度较高的冠层对控制林地土壤溅蚀和穿透水侵蚀力方面具有明显的正面效应。因此在营造人工橡胶林的水土保持系统时,应在林下种植覆盖高、植冠低的经济作物,从而形成有效减弱穿透水侵蚀力的林冠结构,同时应有效保护好林地的地表枯落物层,以减少雨滴对地表的侵蚀。 3. 测定结果显示当橡胶林枯落物层厚度由0 cm增加到1 cm时,该林地的土壤溅蚀率减小了100 %。在枯落物层厚度为1、2和3 cm时的条件下,橡胶林林地的表层土壤均不发生击溅侵蚀现象。因此,橡胶人工林枯落物层在防止林地土壤溅蚀方面具有十分重要的意义,对于控制表层土壤侵蚀和水土流失具有不可低估的作用。; Since the 1970s, economical growth, population pressure and government policy has caused significant changes in land use/land cover in Xishuangbanna, where the conversion of tropical rainforest into rubber plantations has been extensive. It is one of the most important reasons of structure, function and ecological dynamic of tropical rainforest ecosystem. It will most likely cause serious ecological and environmental problems in the future, such as soil erosion and land degradation. In our study, in order to estimate and compare potential splash erosion rates between rubber plantation (RP), tropical rainforest (TRF) and open field, potential splash erosion rates (PSER) and In-situ splash erosion rates (ISER) were investigated in a tropical rainforest and a single layer canopy rubber plantation and open field.by conducting experiments with Ellison-type and Morgan-type splash cups. On the other hand, in order to analysis relationship between rainfall intensity and potential splash erosion rate in the two forests stands and open field, Tipping-bucket rain gauge of 0.5 mm accuracy were installed at the open located 800 mm west of the tropical rainforest to measure open rainfall intensity at 1 h intervals. In addition, Additional throughfall data in the two forest stands were available from XTRES in this study. To study the impacts of different canopy of rubber plantation on soil particle detachment by rainfall, splash erosion rates (SER) was were investigated in a single layer canopy rubber plantation(SRP), a two layers canopy rubber plantation (TRP) and a multiple layers canopy rubber plantation (MRP) by conducting field experiments with Ellison-type splash cups. On the other hand, the impacts of litter layer in a rubber plantation on soil splash erosion were investigated in this paper by conducting experiments with Morgan-type splash cups. Many results are very important. 1. The results revealed that the average PSER in the RP were 2.12 times higher than in the open, suggesting that the canopy of RP were ineffective in decreasing rainsplash erosion. It also documented that rain splash is an important erosion mechanism in the forested hillslope. The PSER in the TRF was 1.22 times higher than in the open, which also indicates that protecting the soil from raindrop impact is not valid for the TRF. Hence, according to these findings, we conclude that the conversion of tropical rainforest into rubber plantation in Xishuangbanna had negative impact on protection of surface soil against rainsplash. On the other hand, the standard deviation of PSER was considerably lower in the open than in the RP and the TRF, meaning that the throughfall erovisity in the two forest sites show an inherently larger spatial variability compared to those in the open. Linear regression analysis indicated that for each forest site the PSER was strongly correlated with the maximum throughfall intensity over short time scales but weakly correlated with the total throughfall amount, whereas for each open site the PSER was weakly correlated with the maximum rainfall intensity over short time scales but strongly correlated with the total rainfall amount. Results showed that the average ISER in the RP was 1.97 times higher than in the TRF, demonstrating that the TRF is more effective in controlling splash erosion than the RP. From the results, we also confirm that the conversion of tropical rainforest into rubber plantation in this area had negative effect on controlling splash erosion. Additionally, results demonstrated that the ISER was lower in the terrace bench than in the riser bank, suggesting that the riser bank is more sensitive to splash erosion than the terrace bench. This will advance our understanding of the difference in In-situ splash erosion between the terrace bench and the riser bank, and also accentuates the importance of soil and water conservation program at the terrace bench in the rubber plantation. Results demonstrated that the ratio of ISER to PSER was 0.47 for the terrace bench, 0.52 for the riser bank and 0.30 for the TRF, meaning that the splash erosion rate of undisturbed soil was much lower than that of disturbed soil in each forest site. This emphasizes the importance of the protection of surface soil structure from raindrop impact in the forest stands. 2. The results of the measurements under forest canopy showed that the SER in the SRP, MRP and TRP was 1.55, 1.30 and 1.05 times, respectively, higher than that in the open conditions, indicating that the erosivity of throughfall under the three canopy structural types of rubber plantation was higher than that in the open. This means that protecting the soil from raindrop impact is not valid for the TRP, MRP and particularly the SRP. Furthermore, results also indicate that the erosivity of throughfall was highest in the SRP, followed by the MRP, and the lowest in the TRP, suggesting that the throughfall erosivity is strictly linked to the forest canopy structure, especially height and canopy cover. The implication for the results is that an important consideration in managing the rubber plantation may be planting tea or other economic crops with high coverage and low height under that canopy, forming a canopy structure which is effective in decreasing throughfall erosivity and rainsplash erosion on the forest floor. 3. The results revealed that the soil splash erosion rates on the forest floor decreased by 100% as the litter layer of the rubber plantation increased from 0 to 1 cm. Under the conditions of the litter layer thickness reaching 1, 2 and 3 cm, the splash erosion behavior does not occur in the rubber plantation stand. On the basis of the results, it is recommended that to protect litter layers for surface soil conservation in the rubber plantation in Xishuangbanna. 
Document Type学位论文
Identifierhttp://ir.xtbg.org.cn/handle/353005/10926
Collection西双版纳热带植物园毕业生学位论文
Recommended Citation
GB/T 7714
罗亲普. 西双版纳热带雨林和人工橡胶林林冠雨滴溅蚀研究[D]. 北京. 中国科学院研究生院,2012.
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