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Interactions between all pairs of neighboring trees in 16 forests worldwide reveal details of unique ecological processes in each forest, and provide windows into their evolutionary histories
Wills, Christopher; Wang, Bin1; Fang, Shuai2; Wang, Yunquan3,4; Jin, Yi5; Lutz, James6; Thompson, Jill7; Harms, Kyle E.; Pulla, Sandeep; Pasion, Bonifacio11; Germain, Sara6; Liu, Heming12; Smokey, Joseph13; Su, Sheng-Hsin; Butt, Nathalie15,16; Chu, Chengjin17,18; Chuyong, George19; Chang-Yang, Chia-Hao; Dattaraja, H. S.; Davies, Stuart21; Ediriweera, Sisira22; Esufali, Shameema23; Fletcher, Christine Dawn; Gunatilleke, Nimal25; Gunatilleke, Savi25; Hsieh, Chang-Fu; He, Fangliang17,18; Hubbell, Stephen27; Hao, Zhanqing2; Itoh, Akira28; Kenfack, David29; Li, Buhang17,18; Li, Xiankun1; Ma, Keping4; Morecroft, Michael30; Mi, Xiangcheng4; Malhi, Yadvinder31; Ong, Perry32; Rodriguez, Lillian Jennifer32; Suresh, H. S.; Sun, I. Fang; Sukumar, Raman9; Tan, Sylvester35; Thomas, Duncan36; Uriarte, Maria37; Wang, Xihua12; Wang, Xugao2; Yao, T. L.; Zimmermann, Jess38
AbstractAuthor summary Worldwide, ecosystems are collapsing or in danger of collapse, but the precise causes of these collapses are often unknown. Observational and experimental evidence shows that all ecosystems are characterized by strong interactions between and among species, and that these webs of interactions can be important contributors to the preservation of ecosystem diversity. But many of the interactions-such as those involving pathogenic microorganisms and the chemical defenses that are mounted by their prey-are not easily identified and analyzed in ecosystems that may have hundreds or thousands of species. Here we use our equal-area-annulus analytical method to examine census data from over three million trees in forest plots from around the world. We show how the method can be used to flag pairs and groups of species that exhibit unusual levels of interaction and that are likely on further investigation to yield information about their causative mechanisms. We give a detailed example showing how some of these interactions can be traced to defense mechanisms that are possessed by one of the tree species. We explore how our method can be used to identify the between-species interactions that play the largest roles in the maintenance of ecosystems and their diversity. When Darwin visited the Galapagos archipelago, he observed that, in spite of the islands' physical similarity, members of species that had dispersed to them recently were beginning to diverge from each other. He postulated that these divergences must have resulted primarily from interactions with sets of other species that had also diverged across these otherwise similar islands. By extrapolation, if Darwin is correct, such complex interactions must be driving species divergences across all ecosystems. However, many current general ecological theories that predict observed distributions of species in ecosystems do not take the details of between-species interactions into account. Here we quantify, in sixteen forest diversity plots (FDPs) worldwide, highly significant negative density-dependent (NDD) components of both conspecific and heterospecific between-tree interactions that affect the trees' distributions, growth, recruitment, and mortality. These interactions decline smoothly in significance with increasing physical distance between trees. They also tend to decline in significance with increasing phylogenetic distance between the trees, but each FDP exhibits its own unique pattern of exceptions to this overall decline. Unique patterns of between-species interactions in ecosystems, of the general type that Darwin postulated, are likely to have contributed to the exceptions. We test the power of our null-model method by using a deliberately modified data set, and show that the method easily identifies the modifications. We examine how some of the exceptions, at the Wind River (USA) FDP, reveal new details of a known allelopathic effect of one of the Wind River gymnosperm species. Finally, we explore how similar analyses can be used to investigate details of many types of interactions in these complex ecosystems, and can provide clues to the evolution of these interactions.
KeywordEast Asia Itea Iteaceae Leaf fossil Oligocene Southwestern China
Subject AreaPlant Sciences
Indexed BySCI
WOS IDWOS:000644759700007
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Document Type期刊论文
Affiliation1.Univ Calif San Diego, Div Biol Sci, La Jolla, CA 92093 USA
2.Guangxi Zhuang Autonomous Reg & Chinese Acad Sci, Guangxi Inst Bot, Guangxi Key Lab Plant Conservat & Restorat Ecol K, Guilin, Peoples R China
3.Chinese Acad Sci, Inst Appl Ecol, Key Lab Forest Ecol & Management, Shenyang, Peoples R China
4.Zhejiang Normal Univ, Coll Chem & Life Sci, Jinhua, Zhejiang, Peoples R China
5.Chinese Acad Sci, Inst Bot, State Key Lab Vegetat & Environm Change, 20 Nanxincun, Beijing, Peoples R China
6.Zhejiang Univ, Coll Life Sci, Hangzhou, Peoples R China
7.Utah State Univ, Dept Wildland Resources, Logan, UT 84322 USA
8.Ctr Ecol & Hydrol, Penicuik, Midlothian, Scotland
9.Harms, Kyle E.] Louisiana State Univ, Dept Biol Sci, Los Angeles, CA USA
10.Indian Inst Sci, Divecha Ctr Climate Change, Bengaluru, India
11.Pulla, Sandeep; Dattaraja, H. S.] Natl Ctr Biol Sci, GKVK Campus, Bengaluru, India
12.Chinese Acad Sci, Ctr Integrat Conservat, Xishuangbanna Trop Bot Garden, Mengla, Yunnan, Peoples R China
13.East China Normal Univ, Sch Ecol & Environm Sci, Zhejiang Tiantong Forest Ecosyst Natl Observat &, Shanghai, Peoples R China
14.Mem Univ Newfoundland, Dept Biol, St John, NF, Canada
15.Natl Taiwan Univ, Inst Ecol & Evolutionary Biol, Taipei, Taiwan
16.Univ Oxford, Sch Geog & Environm, Oxford, England
17.Univ Queensland, Sch Biol Sci, St Lucia, Qld, Australia
18.Sun Yat Sen Univ, State Key Lab Biocontrol, Dept Ecol, Guangzhou, Peoples R China
19.Sun Yat Sen Univ, Sch Life Sci, Guangzhou, Peoples R China
20.Univ Buea, Dept Bot & Plant Physiol, Buea, Cameroon
21.Natl Sun Yat Sen Univ, Dept Biol Sci, Kaohsiung, Taiwan
22.Smithsonian Inst, Ctr Trop Forest Sci, Washington, DC 20560 USA
23.Uva Wellassa Univ, Fac Sci & Technol, Badulla, Sri Lanka
24.Univ Peradeniya, Dept Bot, Peradeniya, Sri Lanka
25.Fletcher, Christine Dawn; Yao, T. L.] Forest Res Inst Malaysia, Kepong Selangor, Malaysia
26.Univ Peradeniya, Fac Sci, Dept Bot, Peradeniya, Sri Lanka
27.Taiwan Forestry Res Inst, Taipei, Taiwan
28.Univ Calif Los Angeles, Dept Ecol & Evolutionary Biol, Los Angeles, CA USA
29.Osaka City Univ, Grad Sch Sci, Sumiyoshi Ku, Osaka, Japan
30.Smithsonian Trop Res Inst, Ctr Trop Forest Sci Forest Global Earth Observ CT, NMNH MRC, Washington, DC USA
31.Nat England Mail Hub, Cty Hall, Worcester, England
32.Univ Oxford, Oxford Univ Ctr Environm, Sch Geog & Environm, Oxford, England
33.Univ Philippines Diliman, Coll Sci, Inst Biol, Quezon City, Philippines
34.Suresh, H. S.] Indian Inst Sci, Ctr Ecol Sci, Bengaluru, India
35.Natl Dong Hwa Univ, Dept Nat Resources & Environm Studies, Hualien, Taiwan
36.Bangunan Wisma Sumber Alam, Forest Dept Sarawak, Jalan Stadium, Kuching, Sarawak, Malaysia
37.Washington State Univ, Dept Biol, Vancouver, WA USA
38.Columbia Univ, Dept Ecol Evolut & Environm Biol, New York, NY USA
39.Univ Puerto Rico, Dept Environm Sci, San Juan, PR 00936 USA
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Wills, Christopher,Wang, Bin,Fang, Shuai,et al. Interactions between all pairs of neighboring trees in 16 forests worldwide reveal details of unique ecological processes in each forest, and provide windows into their evolutionary histories[J]. PLOS COMPUTATIONAL BIOLOGY,2021,17(4):-.
APA Wills, Christopher.,Wang, Bin.,Fang, Shuai.,Wang, Yunquan.,Jin, Yi.,...&Zimmermann, Jess.(2021).Interactions between all pairs of neighboring trees in 16 forests worldwide reveal details of unique ecological processes in each forest, and provide windows into their evolutionary histories.PLOS COMPUTATIONAL BIOLOGY,17(4),-.
MLA Wills, Christopher,et al."Interactions between all pairs of neighboring trees in 16 forests worldwide reveal details of unique ecological processes in each forest, and provide windows into their evolutionary histories".PLOS COMPUTATIONAL BIOLOGY 17.4(2021):-.
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