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Seedling emergence and environmental filters determine Ficus recruitment in a subtropical landscape
Castillo-Diaz, Diana; Chen, Huayang2,3; Harrison, Rhett D.; Wen, Bin5; Goodale, Uromi Manage1,2
2021
Source PublicationFOREST ECOLOGY AND MANAGEMENT
ISSN0378-1127
Volume497Issue:xPages:-
Abstract

Early regeneration, involving the transition from a seed into a successfully recruited seedling, is a complex process characterized by high mortality rates and the strong association with environmental filters. However, we have limited understanding of the factors and transitional regeneration stages that lead to these broad mortality events, even in species that are key for ecosystem function and comprise the bulk of species in diversity as-sessments, such as Ficus species. Using eight, 1-ha long term monitoring plots, established along an elevation gradient in tropical to subtropical forests in southern China, and partitioning the early plant regeneration process into four stages (seed germination, seedling emergence, establishment and recruitment), we conducted a seed addition experiment to assess the factors driving the early regeneration process. We used four hemi-epiphytic and four non-hemiepiphytic Ficus species, specifically asking whether elevation, microsite conditions and growth form affect the success of regeneration outcomes. We observed that Ficus early regeneration was highly limited throughout the subtropical landscape with similar seed germination probabilities along all elevations, but greater seedling emergence at higher elevations. Growth form and elevation interacted significantly during seed germination and seedling emergence stages. The strongest filtering effect was observed during seedling emer-gence, with greater canopy openness facilitating, but drier and cooler soils being less conducive to seedling emergence, especially for hemiepiphytic species. Once emerged, Ficus seedlings were released from the envi-ronmental filters assessed here, yet, continued to face successively greater mortality during establishment and recruitment. Greater seed germination and seedling emergence on the ground observed in hemiepiphytes indi-cate that they may benefit from evolutionary traits associated with canopy regeneration under water and tem-perature stress, but only at the early regeneration stages, as seedling establishment and recruitment were similar in both groups. In general, our results demonstrate that even when seeds are available, successful recruitment is strongly limited by microsite conditions and growth form, through filtering mechanisms associated with the transition from seedling emergence to seedling establishment. The identification of environmental filters that operate during the complex and vulnerable early regeneration stages provides a baseline to develop management strategies for ex situ conservation, as well as in situ population reestablishment for restoration.

KeywordSeed germination Seedling emergence Seedling establishment Seedling recruitment Canopy openness Regeneration niche Soil conditions Elevation gradient
Subject AreaForestry
DOI10.1016/j.foreco.2021.119536
Indexed BySCI
Language英语
WOS IDWOS:000684974200005
Citation statistics
Document Type期刊论文
Identifierhttp://ir.xtbg.org.cn/handle/353005/12391
Collection支撑系统
Affiliation1.Guangxi Univ, Coll Forestry, Guangxi Key Lab Forest Ecol & Conservat, Daxuedonglu 100, Nanning 530004, Guangxi, Peoples R China
2.Guangxi Univ, Coll Forestry, State Key Lab Conservat & Utilizat Subtrop Agrobi, Daxuedonglu 100, Nanning 530004, Guangxi, Peoples R China
3.Int Union Conservat Nat, Species Survival Commiss, Seed Conservat Specialist Grp, CH-281196 Gland, Switzerland
4.Chinese Acad Sci, Inst Bot, State Key Lab Vegetat & Environm Change, Beijing 100093, Peoples R China
5.Harrison, Rhett D.] East & Southern Africa Reg Off, World Agroforestry ICRAF, Lusaka, Zambia
6.Chinese Acad Sci, Ctr Integrat Conservat, Xishuangbanna Trop Bot Garden, Mengla 666303, Yunnan, Peoples R China
Recommended Citation
GB/T 7714
Castillo-Diaz, Diana,Chen, Huayang,Harrison, Rhett D.,et al. Seedling emergence and environmental filters determine Ficus recruitment in a subtropical landscape[J]. FOREST ECOLOGY AND MANAGEMENT,2021,497(x):-.
APA Castillo-Diaz, Diana,Chen, Huayang,Harrison, Rhett D.,Wen, Bin,&Goodale, Uromi Manage.(2021).Seedling emergence and environmental filters determine Ficus recruitment in a subtropical landscape.FOREST ECOLOGY AND MANAGEMENT,497(x),-.
MLA Castillo-Diaz, Diana,et al."Seedling emergence and environmental filters determine Ficus recruitment in a subtropical landscape".FOREST ECOLOGY AND MANAGEMENT 497.x(2021):-.
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