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The function of ant repellence by flowers: testing the "nectar protection" and "pollinator protection" hypotheses
Gonzalvez, Francisco G.; Chen, J.; Rodriguez-Girones, Miguel A.
2015
Source PublicationEVOLUTIONARY ECOLOGY
ISSN0269-7653
Volume29Issue:3Pages:391-403
AbstractAccording to the "nectar protection" and "pollinator protection" hypotheses, ant repellents in flowers have evolved to prevent ants from exploiting floral nectar and chasing away pollinators, respectively. We used weaver ants, Oecophylla smaragdina, to determine the strength of ant repellence in 32 bee-pollinated plant species and used the comparative method to test whether nectar production, size of pollinating bees and plant growth form were related to floral repellence. Flowers were more likely to repel ants if they offered nectar as a reward and were pollinated by small bees than if they were nectarless and pollinated by large bees. Furthermore, tree flowers were more likely than shrub or vine flowers to repel ants. Our results validate the pollinator protection hypothesis and the nectar protection hypothesis. Depending on the ecological context, therefore, ant repellents can function as direct or indirect exploitation barriers: they can prevent ants from removing nectar without effecting pollination (direct barriers) and, when flowers are pollinated by large bees, the absence of ant repellents-or even the presence of ant attractants-can result in ants chasing small ineffective pollinators away (indirect barriers).
KeywordAnt Repellents Nectar Bee Size Plant Growth Form Pollination
Language英语
Document Type期刊论文
Identifierhttp://ir.xtbg.org.cn/handle/353005/9189
Collection动植物关系组
Corresponding AuthorChen, J.
Recommended Citation
GB/T 7714
Gonzalvez, Francisco G.,Chen, J.,Rodriguez-Girones, Miguel A.. The function of ant repellence by flowers: testing the "nectar protection" and "pollinator protection" hypotheses[J]. EVOLUTIONARY ECOLOGY,2015,29(3):391-403.
APA Gonzalvez, Francisco G.,Chen, J.,&Rodriguez-Girones, Miguel A..(2015).The function of ant repellence by flowers: testing the "nectar protection" and "pollinator protection" hypotheses.EVOLUTIONARY ECOLOGY,29(3),391-403.
MLA Gonzalvez, Francisco G.,et al."The function of ant repellence by flowers: testing the "nectar protection" and "pollinator protection" hypotheses".EVOLUTIONARY ECOLOGY 29.3(2015):391-403.
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