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title: Planetary boundaries: Guiding human development on a changing planet
author: Steffen, Will;  Richardson, Katherine;  Rockstrom, Johan;  Cornell, Sarah E.;  Fetzer, Ingo;  Bennett, Elena M.;  Biggs, Reinette;  Carpenter, Stephen R.;  de Vries, Wim;  de Wit, Cynthia A.;  Folke, Carl;  Gerten, Dieter;  Heinke, Jens;  Mace, Georgina M.;  Persson, Linn M.;  Ramanathan, Veerabhadran;  Reyers, Belinda;  Sorlin, Sverker
Issued Date: 2015
Abstract: The planetary boundaries framework defines a safe operating space for humanity based on the intrinsic biophysical processes that regulate the stability of the Earth system. Here, we revise and update the planetary boundary framework, with a focus on the underpinning biophysical science, based on targeted input from expert research communities and on more general scientific advances over the past 5 years. Several of the boundaries now have a two-tier approach, reflecting the importance of cross-scale interactions and the regional-level heterogeneity of the processes that underpin the boundaries. Two core boundaries-climate change and biosphere integrity-have been identified, each of which has the potential on its own to drive the Earth system into a new state should they be substantially and persistently transgressed.
Related URLs: 10.1126/science.1259855
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Recommended Citation:
Steffen, Will,Richardson, Katherine,Rockstrom, Johan,et al. Planetary Boundaries: Guiding Human Development On A Changing Planet[J]. Science,2015,347(6223):-.

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