XTBG OpenIR  > 西双版纳热带植物园毕业生学位论文
系统发育和功能性状维度的树种共存机制研究
Alternative TitleDisentangling Mechanisms Underlying Tree Species Coexistence: Integrating Phylogenetic and Functional Dimensions
杨 洁
Subtype博士
Thesis Advisor曹敏
2013-11
Degree Grantor中国科学院研究生院
Place of Conferral北京
Degree Discipline生态学
Keyword物种共存机制 个体种面积关系 个体系统发育面积关系 群落系统 发育格局 群落功能性状格局
Abstract
物种共存机制不仅是群落生态学研究的核心科学问题之一,同时也是保护
生物学的关键基础理论。生态位理论认为物种的共存建立在物种间生态位分化
的基础上,中性理论认为物种的共存是随机漂变的结果。由于群落中的物种存
在着进化历史和功能性状上的差异,因此基于系统发育和功能性状维度分析生
态位过程和中性过程在群落物种共存中的相对作用,已成为探讨物种共存机制
的重要方法。
生态位过程和中性过程在群落不同尺度、树种各个阶段中和不同生境中的
相对重要性不同。为揭示这两个过程在群落树种共存中的相对贡献,采用个体
种面积关系和个体系统发育面积关系方法,分别探讨生态位过程和中性过程在
Wabikon Lake(美国), Ailaoshan(中国), Xishuangbanna(中国), BCI(巴拿
马), Korup(喀麦隆), Edoro-1(刚果), Edoro-2(刚果), Lenda-1(刚果)和
Lenda-2(刚果)共9 个森林动态监测样地在群落不同空间尺度的变化规律。由
于哀牢山亚热带中山湿性常绿阔叶林和西双版纳热带季节雨林动态监测样地还
同时拥有基于DNA 条形码构建的群落系统发育树以及丰富的树种功能性状和
环境(地形和土壤)数据,因此,采用构建零模型的方法分析群落系统发育和
功能性状结构及beta 多样性格局,用距离矩阵的多矩阵回归检验和RLQ 排序
检验统计系统发育和功能性状对环境的选择性。主要研究结果如下:
1、基于个体系统发育面积关系揭示进化历史对种间相互作用的重要性
从温带森林到热带森林,个体种面积关系没有明显的纬度变化趋势;群落
吸引型物种和排斥型物种在0-50 m 尺度上均表现出显著的系统发育信号;系统
发育的吸引型物种和排斥型物种主要作用于邻体30 m 的尺度内。个体种面积关
系和个体系统发育面积关系的变化支持竞争、互助等非中性过程影响着物种及
系统发育多样性在局域尺度上的空间分布格局,物种之间的相互作用主要发生
在其邻体30 m 的范围内。
2、结合系统发育和功能性状维度揭示种间竞争和环境过滤分别在群落较
小和较大尺度上对群落树种共存发挥主导作用
哀牢山亚热带森林群落和西双版纳热带季节雨林群落中的功能性状存在着
显著的系统发育信号,其系统发育结构和功能性状结构在不同空间尺度、树种
不同的生活史阶段和不同的生境中均不是随机的。哀牢山亚热带森林群落不同
生活史阶段的树种在所有的空间尺度和生境中都表现出系统发育和功能性状的
聚集结构。西双版纳热带森林群落系统发育和功能性状在小尺度上呈现发散的
结构,但随着尺度的增加,系统发育和功能性状的多样性结构趋于聚集。由于
大树间对资源的竞争增强,随着冠层树种径级的增加,系统发育和功能性状结
构越来越发散。在环境压力较大的生境中,系统发育和功能性状表现出聚集的
结构;在环境压力较小的生境中,则表现出发散的结构。系统发育和功能性状
结构的变化支持种间竞争和环境过滤分别在群落较小和较大尺度上对群落树种
共存发挥主导作用
3、群落系统发育和功能性状beta 多样性揭示环境过滤具有系统发育和功
能性状的依赖性
西双版纳热带森林群落中,不同尺度上群落系统发育和功能多样性的转换不
随机。环境距离对系统发育和功能性状beta 多样性的解释程度比空间距离的解
释程度更高。生境内系统发育和功能性状的变化小于生境间的变化。西双版纳
热带群落中的系统发育和功能组合明显表现出被土壤养分过滤的趋势。这些结
果支持环境过滤具有系统发育和功能性状的依赖性
综上所述,生态位过程和中性过程在这些森林群落的物种共存中均发挥着作
用,但这两个过程的相对作用随群落的不同空间尺度、树种的不同生活史阶段和
不同的生境而变化。基于系统发育和功能性状维度探讨物种共存机制,能够为认
识物种分布的格局和理解生物多样性的维持提供新的视角,从而为生物多样性的
保护提供科学依据。
 

Other Abstract
Understanding the mechanisms of species maintenance in ecosystems is one of
the key issues in the study of biodiversity. Niche theory states that species
coexistence is based on niche differentiation among species. The unified neutral
theory assumes that species abundances may drift neutrally over long periods of time
and species-specific differences need not be invoked to explain co-occurrence. A
number of studies have now shown that species in the community were not
evolutionarily independent and ecologically equivalent. Integrating the phylogenetic
and functional dimensions of biodiversity to examine the relatedness to which
stochastic and deterministic processes underpinning community assembly is a
potentially effective method in ecology.
The stochastic and deterministic processes are dynamic processes across spatial
scales, tree size classes and distinct habitat types in community. We applied
individual species area relationship (ISAR) and individual phylogenetic area
relationship (IPAR) approaches to study the relative importance of niche or neutral
processes as drivers of species coexistence across scales within nine forest dynamics
plots (FDPs), those are Wabikon Lake (USA), Ailaoshan (China), Xishuangbanna
(China), BCI (Panama), Korup (Cameroon), Edoro-1 (Congo), Edoro-2 (Congo),
Lenda-1 (Congo) and Lenda-2 (Congo). In addition, owing to the availability of the
data sets on molecular phylogeny, functional traits of the tree species, environmental
varieties and spatial data in the 6-ha Ailaoshan and the 20-ha Xishuangbanna FDPs
in southwest China, we were able to use the null model to analyze the phylogenetic
and functional structure and beta diversity of tree assemblages in these two FDPs.
We also quantified whether explicitly lineages and combinations of trait states are
filtered by environment using the multiple regressions on distance matrices (MRM)
and RLQ approaches in Xishuangbanna FDP. The major findings are as follows:
Abstract
ii
1. The
importance
of
past
evolutionary
history
in
dictating
the
ecological
interactions
we
presently
observe
Our study did not indicate clear latitudinal trend in the ISARs of the nine FDPs
ranging from the temperate to the tropics. The distribution of species accumulators
and repellers was non-random on the community phylogenies at the spatial scales of r
< 50 m, indicating the presence of phylogenetic signal in the ISAR across the latitudes.
The phylogenetic diversity surrounding the individuals of species was generally only
non-random at very local scales. Our results suggested that biotic interactions on
individual-level distributions in communities are the strongest at the scales of r < 30
m in the nine FDPs. This lends support to the idea that non-neutral processes such as
competition and facilitation may occur at local-scale spatial pattern of species
diversity.
2. Abiotic determinism is more important at larger scales while biotic
determinism is more important on smaller scales within community
All traits, except leaf area and stem specific resistance, had significant
phylogenetic signal in Ailaoshan and Xishuangbanna FDPs. Non-random
phylogenetic and functional structure was found in each tree size class across all
spatial scales and habitat types. Phylogenetic and functional clustering was found in
each size classes across all scales and habitats in Ailaoshan FDP. On fine spatial
scales, phylogenetic and functional trait dispersion changed from overdispersion to
clustering with increasing spatial scales in Xishuangbanna FDP. Phylogenetic and
functional trait clustering in small and medium size classes turned to overdispersion in
the largest size class, such change in dispersion with size was found in each habitat
type across all spatial scales in Xishuangbanna FDP. Our results uncovered that
Abiotic determinism is more important at larger scales while biotic determinism is
more important on smaller scales within community.
Document Type学位论文
Identifierhttp://ir.xtbg.org.cn/handle/353005/9885
Collection西双版纳热带植物园毕业生学位论文
Recommended Citation
GB/T 7714
杨 洁. 系统发育和功能性状维度的树种共存机制研究[D]. 北京. 中国科学院研究生院,2013.
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