XTBG OpenIR  > 西双版纳热带植物园毕业生学位论文
蚂蚁对榕——蜂互惠系统的影响
魏作东
Subtype硕士
Thesis Advisor杨大荣
2005-05
Degree Grantor中国科学院研究生院
Place of Conferral北京
Degree Discipline生态学
Keyword榕树 榕小蜂 蚂蚁 互利合作系统 系统稳定性
Abstract榕树与榕小蜂之间构成了最具代表性的、高度专一的互利共生系统。榕树为榕小蜂提供生存发育的环境和条件,榕小蜂为榕树传粉。二者的繁衍都离不开对方。除了传粉小蜂,榕果内还寄生了大量的非传粉小蜂,这些小蜂利用榕果内的瘦花资源却不为榕树或榕小蜂提供任何资源或服务。非传粉小蜂的存在无疑会影响榕树一榕小蜂系统的稳定性。但是已经提出的理论并不能很好的解释非传粉小蜂为什么没有导致榕树一榕小蜂系统的崩溃。除了寄生在榕果里面的各种小蜂,榕树还吸引了很多其它的动物,己有的研究结果显示有些物种在榕树性状的进化中起到了很大的作用。本研究以聚果榕(Ficus racemos。)、聚果榕榕果内的小蜂、在聚果榕榕果上面活动的蚂蚁、对叶榕(F.his Pida)、在对叶榕榕果上面活动的蚂蚁为材料,用野外观测实验、排除蚂蚁实验等实验方法研究了热带雨林生态系统中的重要生物类群蚂蚁对榕树一榕小蜂系统的影响。在聚果榕上面做的排除蚂蚁实验结果表明聚果榕上活动的蚂蚁能强烈干扰五种非传粉小蜂产卵,间接有利于传粉小蜂Ceratosolen fusciceps Mayr的繁殖。双因素方差分析的结果表明蚂蚁对榕果内各种小蜂后代的数量百分数都有显著影响(n=82,F1.80>9,P<0.02)。榕果上有蚂蚁拜访时,传粉小蜂的数量占榕果内六种小蜂总数的73.02%,五种非传粉小蜂的数量百分数分别为Platyneura agroensis Joseph,6.45%,Apocrypta westwoodi Grandi,6.14%,Apocrypta sp.,0.20%,Platyneura testacea Motschulsky,1.79%,Platyneura mayri Rasplus,12.41%。排除掉榕果上的蚂蚁后,传粉小蜂只占小蜂总数的2.14%,五种非传粉小蜂的数量百分数分别为P.agraensis,0.12%,A.westwoodi,27.36%,Apocryptasp.,6.99%,P.testacea,10.96%,P.mayri,52.44%。榕果上有蚂蚁存在时每个榕果内种子的平均数量是3098.92粒。排除掉榕果上的蚂蚁后每个榕果内种子的平均数量只有189.02粒。传粉小蜂是聚果榕唯一的传粉者,各种非传粉小蜂跟传粉小蜂竞争资源或直接寄生传粉小蜂。聚果榕上的蚂蚁提高了传粉小蜂的数量百分数和种子的数量,从而有利于榕树的繁殖。排除蚂蚁以后,由于非传粉小蜂产卵过多导致传粉小蜂数量下降。传粉小蜂雄虫数量太少无法在榕果壁上打洞,所有的小蜂都无法飞出榕果,会影响榕树一榕小蜂系统的稳定性。而榕果上面的蚂蚁能将非传粉小蜂的数量控制在一定范围内从而可以使该系统维持稳定。聚果榕榕果上蚂蚁分布的调查结果显示,聚果榕上分布了大量的蚂蚁,其数量足以显著控制非传粉小蜂的种群数量,维持榕树一榕小蜂系统的稳定性。而对I:l一卜榕上蚂蚁数量极少不可能对非传粉小蜂数量产生显著影响。结合前人的雌雄异株有利于榕树控制非传粉小蜂数量的研究结果,我们认为不同种榕树可能采取不同措施来控制非传粉小蜂的种群,以维持榕树一榕小蜂系统的稳定性。
Other AbstractThe obligate mutualism between figs and fig wasps is one of classical species-specific model system. The reproduction and development of fig pollinating wasps are completely dependent on figs; on the other hand, they are sole pollinators of figs. Besides pollinator, there are many species of wasps which breed in syconium of figs but play no role in pollinating process. So the non-pollinating wasps will no doubt destroy the stability of fig-wasp mutualism unless their population under reasonable control. Theories proposed can partially resolve the problem. Besides wasps breed in syconium, figs also attract a suit of animals. It is reported that characters of fig have influenced in co-evolution with some of them. In this study, we chose Ficus racemosa, wasps breed in syconium of F. racemosa, ants patrolling on figs of F. racemosa, F. hispida and ants patrolling on figs of F. hispida as materials. Field observation and ants excluded experiment were performed to evaluate whether ants on figs have impact on stability of fig-wasp mutualism. The results showed that foraging workers of ants attacked non-pollinating wasps severely when they were ovipositing on the fruits. But, they could not interfere with pollinators, which could enter the fig through the ostioles in a few seconds. The result of Two-way ANOVA suggested that ants have significant impacts on the percentage of number (N %) of every wasp species breed in the fig (N=82, Fx, 8o >9, P<0.02). Ants present, the N % of pollinator Ceratosolen fusciceps Mayr was 73.02 %; non-pollinating wasps Platyneura agraensis was 6.45%, Apocrypta westwoodi was 6.14%, Apocrypta sp. was 0.20%, Platyneura testacea was 1.79%, Platyneura mayri was 12.41%. Ants absent, the N % of pollinator C. fusciceps was 2.14%; non-pollinating wasps P. agraensis was 0.12%, A. westwoodi was 27.36%, Apocrypta sp. was 6.99%, P. testacea was 10.96% , P. mayri was 52.44% . "When there are ants on the figs, the average number of seed per fig is 3098.92, when ants absent there are only 189.02 seed per fig. C. fusciceps was sole pollinator of F. racemosa, while non-pollinating wasps competed with pollinator for galls or parasitized pollinator but play no role in pollination process. So ants can benefit F. racemosa by increase the number of seed per fig and the N % of pollinator while decrease that of non-pollinating wasps'. When ants were excluded, there were few pollinators because non-pollinating wasps hold most of galls. So there were too few males of pollinators to make an escape hole on the figs. All wasps would be sealed in the syconium and the fig-wasp mutualism would not be maintained. While the ants on the figs can decrease the number of non-pollinating wasps so that avoiding the instability of fig-wasp mutualism. We counted the ants on sampled F. hispida and Ficus racemosa, the results showed that there were so many ants on Ficus racemosa as to decrease the number of non-pollinating wasps and maintain the stability of fig-wasp mutualism. While there were too few ants on F. hispida to decrease the number of non-pollinating wasps. Combined with previous theory that evolution of dioecism can decrease the number of non-pollinating wasps, we concluded that different species of figs can take various strategies to decrease the number of non-pollinating wasps and maintain the stability of fig-wasp mutualism.
Language中文
Document Type学位论文
Identifierhttp://ir.xtbg.org.cn/handle/353005/9889
Collection西双版纳热带植物园毕业生学位论文
Recommended Citation
GB/T 7714
魏作东. 蚂蚁对榕——蜂互惠系统的影响[D]. 北京. 中国科学院研究生院,2005.
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